The Language of the Stock Exchange – A Contrastive Analysis of the Lexis V clanku je podana analiza jezika borze s stalisca slovensko-angleske protistave. Izrazje ( samostalniske zveze ) obeh jezikov smo protistavili tako V strukturnem kot V semanticnem smislu. pri cemer Se je razkrilo vec protistavnih znacilnosti. med drugim razlicni nacini ubeseditve istega pojma. terminoloske praznine in lazni prijatelji. slovensko borzno terminologijo dad zaznamujejo tudi angleske tujke. The article analyzes the linguistic communication of the stock exchange from a Slovene-English incompatible point of view.
The specialised lexis of the two linguistic communications was juxtaposed as to the structural and semantic differences of their several footings and looks ( nominal phrases ) . uncovering such incompatible phenomena as different conceptualisations. terminological spreads and false friends. while the Slovene stock exchange nomenclature is besides characterized by English foreignisms. 1. Introduction James characterizes incompatible analysis ( CA ) as a intercrossed lingual subject ( 1989: 4 ) . since it is neither particularist nor generalist and is interested both in the subjective mastermind of a linguistic communication and in the ways in which one linguistic communication compares to other linguistic communications.
Calcium does non endeavor to sort linguistic communications and is interested both in the differences and similarities between them. Having had purely pedagogical deductions at first. the theoretical foundations of CA were ab initio laid down by Robert Lado in his Linguisticss Across Cultures ( 1957 ) . Lado supported the strong belief that if scholars of a foreign linguistic communication ( L2 ) were made aware of the ways in which their female parent lingua ( L1 ) and L2 differed. this would ease foreign linguistic communication acquisition.
He went even further by claiming that the elements of L2 that are similar to the learners’ L1 will turn out simple to larn. with those that are different being hard. Lado was the first to propose a systematic set of proficient processs for the incompatible survey of linguistic communications ; this included descriptions of linguistic communications and their comparings every bit good as anticipations of L2 larning troubles. In its most ambitious phrasing. the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis claimed to be able to foretell all learners’ mistakes committed in utilizing an L2.
However. empirical surveies conducted during the seventiess could non prolong this claim. doing it clear that CA could merely foretell certain debatable countries for scholars and some of the mistakes they are bound to do in their versions of L2 ( James 1989: 145 ; my italics ) . All comparings work on the footing of the premise that the entities to be compared have certain things in common. and that any differences between them can be laid 154 Slovenski jezik – Slovene Linguistic Studies 7 ( 2009 ) against this common background. A CA therefore ever involves a common lingual platform of mention. against which incompatible divergences are stated.
This common platform is termed tertium comparationis ( TC ) . Depending on the adopted TC. the same facets of linguistic communication may turn out be similar or different ( Krzeszowski 1990: 16 ) . In syntactic and lexical incompatible surveies. the TC is frequently taken to be formal or semantic correspondence ( ibid. ) . chiefly in combination. Contrastive linguistics is non a incorporate field of survey. The focal point may be on general or on linguistic communication specific characteristics. The survey may be theoretical ( theoretical CA ) . without any immediate application. or it may be applied ( applied CA ) . i. e. carried out for a specific intent ( Fisiak 1981: 2–3 ) .
Further. Gabrovsek ( 2005: 75–6 ) points out that incompatible work can be done at the degrees of: phonemics. graphology. lexicology. grammar. and textology. This is why any incompatible work must needfully be limited in range and therefore ever represent but a fragment of the overall incompatible landscape of a given brace of linguistic communications. Contrastive lexicology is the incompatible survey of the vocabularies of two ( or more ) languages. It concerns itself with the heterotaxy of lexical points from L1 to L2 and vice-versa. confronting such troubles as culture-bound vocabulary. interlingual mismatches. lexical spreads. etc ( ibid. : 62–194 ) .
Equality between lexical points in two linguistic communications can be complete ( trgovalni dan—trading twenty-four hours ) . partial ( organizirani trg—regulated market ) . or nil ( TUVL ; insider ) . There are two possible scenarios in permuting such debatable lexical units: either the L2 equivalent is wholly unknown to us ( what. for illustration. is narocilo omega razponom in odstranitvijo neizvrsene kolicine in English ) . which might take to considerable confusion or even a communicating dislocation. or we are unsure as to the right collocate ( is SLO organizator trga EN market organiser or market operator? ) . which may do our L2 unidiomatic. but does non hinder successful communicating.
Depending on the form and environment it appears in. a lexical point will typically profit from extra semantic shading imposed by the environing lexical elements ( semantic tailoring ) . and frequently accordingly receive different opposite numbers in L2. Note the braces svezenj—bundle. avkcija—auction. majhen—small. but ( in a stock exchange context ) svezenj—block ( trade ) . prekinitvena avkcija—volatility break. mali vlagatelj—retail investor.
The collocator and the base. even if lexically predictable in L2. may look in the opposite order in the two linguistic communications ( zascita vlagateljev—investor protection ) or be joined by a different preposition ( trgovati omega obveznicami—trade in bonds ) . Another collocation-related job. interlingually. is false friends: ( borzna ) kotacija? ( market ) citation. Lexicological CA besides deals with divergent lexical ambiguity ( vzdrzevalec likvidnosti—liquidity supplier or market shaper ) .
This article focuses on lexical incompatible surveies and chooses as its TC the English and Slovene lexis of the linguistic communication of the stock exchange. beguiling between formal and semantic equality of the footings and looks in the two linguistic communications. Taking the Slovene-English incompatible point of view. we focused on nominal phrases ( NPs ) . which have been examined as to the types of ( non- ) correspondence. on the structural every bit good as semantic degree. The purpose of this article has non been a treatment of nomenclature as such ; nomenclature is here entirely the object of incompatible lexicology. which lies at the nucleus of this paper. B.
Bozinovski. The Language of the Stock Exchange … 155 As to the structural facet. a divergency had been expected of the undermentioned sort: SLO simple NP complex NP EN simple NP complex NP composite NP simple NP On the semantic degree. an occasional disagreement had been anticipated between the significance of a peculiar NP in isolation and that in a peculiar context ( in different word combinations. most notably collocations ) . semantic orienting being a characteristic of non merely LGP ( linguistic communication for general intents ) but besides LSP ( linguistic communication for particular intents ) . We had therefore expected NPs to hold different interlingual rendition equivalents in different environments.
English being the tongue franca of the fiscal universe. we had besides expected to happen the English footings to be of a much more specialised nature than their Slovene opposite numbers. 2. Materials and methods The present CA entailed a lexicological comparing of braces of ( original ) Slovene and ( translated ) English texts used in the regular operations of the Ljubljana Stock Exchange Inc. ( LJSE ) . In juxtaposing texts with the same TC—the common platform for comparing was stock exchange terminology—pairs of lexemes ( footings and looks ) relevant to our treatment were singled out and compared as to their structural and semantic belongingss.
Given that we dealt with an LSP. our primary concern was with NPs. which constitute the chief portion of any LSP. The analysis was based on the thus-compiled database of over 1. 000 braces of head words. of which merely a choice appears in this article. 3. Analysis 3. 1. SLO: simple NP & gt ; avkcija CVS delnica delnicar dividenda glavnica indeks izdaja nalozba narocilo obveznica posel EN: simple NP auction NAV portion stockholder dividend chief index issue investing order bond trade 156 Slovenski jezik – Slovene Linguistic Studies 7 ( 2009 ) 3. 1. SLO: simple NP & gt ; promet sklad svezenj trg EN: simple NP ( continued ) turnover fund block market
The logical English equivalents for promet. posel and izdaja in general linguistic communication or in isolation would be. for illustration. traffic. concern and treachery. with bond. auction and portion being translated into Slovene as vez. drazba and delez. but in a stock exchange context the several equivalents are LSP specific and noncontroversial. Svezenj and trg turn out more debatable. The former can either be translated as block ( of securities ) or as block trade. since it can mention to a peculiar measure of securities or to a trade executed in that peculiar measure of securities—both svezenj in Slovene.
Trg can either be rendered as single-word market or compound order book. depending on the context. In the instance of the securities market in general. trg is tantamount to the EN market. but in combination with the trading platform and orders placed in the trading system. trg will usually be order book ( narocila sodium trgu—orders sitting in the order book ) . SLO avkcija and dividenda are LSP footings of an international character. holding been adopted from English ( which their English opposite numbers clearly show ) . while the others are Slovene words.
While avkcija. trg. izdaja. and narocilo are polysemantic words of widespread usage in Slovene LGP and merely obtain specialised significances when used in proper stock exchange contexts. dividenda. sklad. delnica. glavnica. nalozba and obveznica are fiscal footings of an inherently terminological nature. In English. the state of affairs is somewhat different ; merely dividend and investing belong to the fiscal field. while all other words have a broad scope of utilizations and senses. In their full versions. CVS ( cista vrednost sredstev ) and NAV ( net plus value ) are structurally divergent but lexically crystalline.
3. 2. SLO: simple NP borza dokapitalizacija kupnina batch nezaupnica pooblascenec pripojitev Statut VEP & gt ; EN: complex NP [ N+N ] [ N+N ] [ N+N ] [ Adj+N ] [ N+PP ] [ N+N ] [ N+PP ] [ N+PP ] [ N+PP ] stock exchange capital addition purchase monetary value trading unit ballot of no assurance placeholder holder amalgamation by acquisition Articles of Association NAV per unit Except for dokapitalizacija—capital addition. kupnina—purchase monetary value. pripojitev—merger by acquisition and nezaupnica—vote of no assurance. which portion at least some lexical elements. the staying braces are lexically wholly divergent. B.
Bozinovski. The Language of the Stock Exchange … 157 3. 3. SLO: simple NP & gt ; EN: simple NP [ N+N ] [ Adj+NP ] [ Adj+N ] [ N+PP ] [ Adj+NP ] [ N+N ] [ Adj+N ] [ N+PP ] [ N+N ] [ Adj+N ] [ Adj+N ] unit hereafters point delisting derivative tick LJSE quotation mark ( n. ) ticket heart security enota premozenja financne terminske pogodbe indeksna tocka izkljucitev iz ( borznega ) trga izvedeni financni instrument korak kotacije Ljubljanska borza narocilo za nakup in prodajo stevilka posla trgovalna koda vrednostni papir The lexically wholly divergent Ljubljanska borza and LJSE merit a word of reference.
While holding an adjectival premodifier ( denoting the topographic point ) and a simple nominal caput ( denoting the establishment ) in Slovene. English lexicalizes the construct otherwise in several respects. First. Ljubljana in Ljubljana Stock Exchange is a nominal premodifier. as opposed to the adjectival ljubljanski. Further. the simple borza has a complex equivalent in English. viz. the compound stock exchange. the two footings being lexically stat mis apart ( the word borza itself has nil in common with stocks or securities or exchanges of any sort ) .
What is more. all this is packaged into an English acronym of the stock exchange name. therefore LJSE. which is common pattern with English names of stock exchanges ( New York Stock Exchange—NYSE. London Stock Exchange—LSE. National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations— NASDAQ ) . while less so in Slovene. The Slovene name of the exchange either appears in its full signifier or is shortened to borza. English abbreviations and acronyms are a common characteristic of stock exchange nomenclature and have penetrated Slovene in their original signifiers in big Numberss.
Examples include ETF ( exchange traded fund—indeksni vzajemni sklad ) . SI ( systematic internalizer—sistematicni internalizator ) . MiFID ( Markets in Financial Instruments Directive—direktiva o trgu financnih instrumentov ) . OTC ( nonprescription. which has no lexicalized equivalent in Slovene ) . FOK ( fill-or-kill—narocilo omega razponom in odstranitvijo neizvrsene kolicine ) . In these instances. there are no tantamount Slovene abbreviations ( although descriptive equivalents do be ) . since the English 1s are recognized and actively used by all Slovene talkers of the LSP in inquiry.
Note besides the difference between the extremely idiomatic fill-or-kill as opposed to the descriptive Slovene look. 3. 4. 3. 4. 1. SLO: complex NP & gt ; EN: complex NP Structurally and lexically crystalline equivalents auction trading securities firm house avkcijsko trgovanje borznoposredniska hisa 158 Slovenski jezik – Slovene Linguistic Studies 7 ( 2009 )
3. 4. 1. Structurally and lexically crystalline equivalents ( continued ) electronic trading fiscal instrument institutional investor public company trading twenty-four hours elektronsko trgovanje financni instrument institucionalni vlagatelj javna druzba trgovalni dan Note farther cases of the alleged international words in both columns. underscoring the international character of the nomenclature: avkcijsko—auction. financni—financial. instrument—instrument. elektronsko—electronic. institucionalni—institutional.
Although we do hold a native Slovene word for establishment. which is ustanova. there is no semantically matching Slovene adjectival ( ustanovni in this instance would be a false friend ) ; this is why the Slovene term employs the international premodifier. 3. 4. 2.
Structurally parallel. lexically unpredictable equivalents official market regulated market retail investor semi-official market mean monetary value initial public offering bullish market registered portions private bonds authorities bonds open-end fund borzna kotacija organizirani trg Mali vlagatelj prosti trg enotni tecaj prva javna prodaja bikovski tendency imenske delnice podjetniske obveznice javne obveznice vzajemni sklad Here we have NPs of the unvarying construction Adj+N on both sides. and what is debatable is the lexical choices—either of premodifiers or of caputs.
In topographic point of official one would anticipate a merger with the words stock exchange ( judging from borzen ) . Kotacija does hold a direct interlingual rendition. viz. citation. but the English term refers to the highest command or lowest ask monetary value available on a security at any given clip and therefore the two are false friends. The really specific Slovene term borzna kotacija. which stands for the portion of the LJSE regulated market intended for companies following with rigorous coverage and revelation duties. merely has one equivalent in English. viz. official market.
For organizirani trg. many would anticipate organized market. which. nevertheless. is a mistranslation. Instinctively. and non being familiar with stock exchange nomenclature. a transcriber might besides be tempted to interpret the apparently elementary Mali vlagatelj as something like little investor. which would of class consequence in deductions divorced from the stock exchange context. If looked at in isolation. prost. enoten. prodaja. tendency. imenski. kotacija. podjetniski. javen would all acquire interlingual renditions different from those in the above right B. Bozinovski. The Language of the Stock Exchange …
159 column. Here they appear in typical multi-word lexical points from the linguistic communication of the stock exchange. and demand specific equivalents. The above braces are besides exemplifying of the different conceptualisations in the two linguistic communications. Take podjetniske obveznice—they are non *entrepreneurial bonds or *company bonds. but instead private bonds. What is more. although one might anticipate. in position of the logic of things. the antonym of private to be public bonds. English however calls them authorities bonds ( while Slovene does see them as public. therefore javne obveznice ) . 3. 4. 3.
Structurally divergent. lexically parallel equivalents 3. 4. 3. a. Opposite order of lexemes or different parts of address delnica [ prostega trga ] druzba za upravljanje [ dvotirni ] sistem [ vodenja druzb ] indeks [ blue-chip delnic ] indeks [ celotnega trga ] indeks obveznic posel s sveznjem struktura prometa vzdrzevalec likvidnosti N+ [ NP ] N+PP [ Adj ] +N+ [ NP ] N+ [ NP ] N+ [ NP ] N+N N+PP N+N N+N [ semi-official market ] portion direction company [ two-tier direction ] system blue-chip index [ sum market ] index bond index block trade turnover construction liquidness supplier [ NP ] +N N+N [ NP+N ] + N N+N [ NP ] +N N+N N+N N+N N+N
In phrases with indices. Slovene has plural nominal postmodifiers in the possessive instance ( indeks obveznic ) . while English will typically lexicalise the same construct though a remarkable nominal premodifier in the nominative ( bond index ) . The delnice portion of the several Slovene NPs ( indeks blue-chip delnic. indeks delnic investicijskih skladov ) has a nil realisation in English ( blue-chip index. investing fund index ) . 3. 4. 3. B.
Structurally different premodifiers avkcijsko trgovanje celotna trzna kapitalizacija delniska druzba osnovni kapital presezni certifikat tekoci podatki trzna kapitalizacija trzno narocilo cenovno obcutljiva informacija dobro pouceni vlagatelj auction trading entire market capitalisation joint-stock company portion capital outperformance certification real-time information market capitalisation market order price-sensitive information intelligent investor 160 Slovenski jezik – Slovene Linguistic Studies 7 ( 2009 )
Slovene uses adjective premodifiers where English has nominal 1s. except in the last two instances. which both portion the construction of a nominal caput premodified by an adjectival and even portion the same caput. but employ different premodifiers ; the Slovene premodifier has the caput obcutljiv premodified by the adverb cenovno. whereas in English the same information is lexicalized through a compound composed of a noun ( monetary value ) and an adjectival ( sensitive ) .
3. 4. 3. c. Structurally different postmodifiers delnice investicijskih skladov predcasni odkup delnic stopnja donosa trzna kapitalizacija obveznic portions of investing financess early salvation of portions rate of return market cap of bonds The recurrent form here is a nominal postmodifier in the possessive instance in Slovene as opposed to a postmodifying prepositional phrase ( PP ) —typically the of-phrase. as shown by all of the above examples—in English.
Both groups of postmodifiers have the same map ( viz. that of showing genitival dealingss ) . irrespective of their holding different buildings ; Slovene being a man-made linguistic communication. its look of the possessive involves attaching genitival postfixs on postmodifying nouns. with English. an analytic linguistic communication. holding the same content expressed through an independent morpheme ( the preposition of ) . Postmodifiers may be PPs on both sides. but with different caputs: sredstva V upravljanju trgovanje omega obveznicami sistematicni internalizator za delnice 3.
4. 4. N+PP N+PP NP+PP assets under direction N+PP trading in bonds N+PP systematic internalizer in NP+PP portions Structurally and lexically divergent equivalents EN BTS trading system GBD securities firm house market shaper TUVL section 3. 4. 4. a. Explanatory equivalent BTS GBD TUVL section The acronym TUVL stands for Trg uradnih vzdrzevalcev likvidnosti. BTS for borzni trgovalni sistem and GBD for Gorenjska borznoposredniska hisa. none of which have English opposite numbers.
There are other Slovene acronyms and abbreviations that do non hold direct English equivalents and need explanatory phrases when being translated into English. e. g. . CTG ( celotna globina trga ) . ATVP ( Agencija za trg vrednostnih paprijev ) . KDD ( Centralna klirinsko depotna druzba ) . DZU ( druzba za upravljanje ) . ID ( investicijska druzba ) . PID ( pooblascena investicijska druzba ) . and others. Ignoring the names of establishments. merely a few are left. a state of affairs B. Bozinovski. The Language of the Stock Exchange … 161 slightly different from that in English. which abounds in brief signifiers.
These. in bend. make typically non necessitate explanatory Slovene phrases to be understood by Slovenes. being used world-wide by the talkers of the LSP in inquiry. Slovene abbreviations. on the other manus. are non self-explanatory or known to English talkers. and hence do necessitate accounts. Cf. 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. b. Non-transparent equivalents Below are a few groups of perennial buildings that appear in the two linguistic communications as equivalent: SLO: NP [ NP ( nomin. ) +NP ( gen. ) ] [ Kodeks upravljanja ] [ javnih delniskih druzb ] SLO: NP [ N ( nomin. ) +N ( gen.
) ] nihanje cen obrat kapitalizacije placilo kuponov revizija indeksov SLO: NP [ N ( nomin. ) +NP ( gen. ) ] indeks [ delnic borznega in prostega trga ] EN: NP [ NP+N ] [ Corporate Governance ] Code EN: NP [ N+N ] monetary value volatility turnover rate voucher payment index reappraisal EN: NP [ NP+N ] [ entire market ] index Note the contrastively debatable EN index reappraisal ( similarly index public presentation. index construction. index components. etc ) . where the premodifying noun index is ever in the singular. both if mentioning to a individual index ( SLO revizija indeksa ) or several ( SLO revizija indeksov ) .
This calls for an attentive English-Slovene transcriber who must deduce from context. SLO: NP [ N ( nomin. ) +NP ( gen. ) ] datum [ zapadlosti zadnjega kupona ] SLO: NP [ N ( nomin. ) +N ( gen. ) ] institut izstopa institut iztisnitve oddelitev druzbe SLO: NP [ NP+PP ] [ prvi trgovalni dan ] [ brez upravicenja do dividende ] [ izvedeni financni instrumenti ] [ na blago ] SLO: NP [ NP/N+PP ] [ borzni kin ] [ z oddaljenim dostopom ] narocilo [ s preudarkom ] EN: NP [ N+N ] voucher day of the month EN: NP [ cpd ] sell-out squeeze-out by-product EN: NP [ N+N ] ex-dividend day of the month trade good derived functions EN: NP [ Adj+N ] remote member discretional order.
162 Slovenski jezik – Slovene Linguistic Studies 7 ( 2009 ) SLO: NP [ N+PP ] delnice [ V borzni kotaciji ] 3. 4. 4. b. Non-transparent equivalents ( continued ) SLO: NP [ N+PP ] poslovanje [ s sveznji ] prenosi [ med racuni istega imetnika ] trgovanje [ z vrednostnimi papirji ] trgovanje [ na podlagi notranjih informacij ] SLO: NP [ N+PP ] potrdilo O pravnomocnosti SLO: NP [ Adj+N ] ( borzni ) kin kosovne delnice presecni data point EN: NP [ NP+N ] [ functionary market ] portions.
En: NP [ N+N ] block merchandising inter-accounts direction securities merchandising insider covering EN: NP [ N ( gen. ) +NP ] court’s [ conclusiveness seal ] EN: NP [ N/NP+N ] member ( house ) [ no par value ] portions record day of the month The above lists of matching building forms are far from thorough. We have simply made an effort at sorting selected NPs both harmonizing to their structural ( congruent or divergent ) and lexical ( crystalline or oblique ) belongingss. seeking to demo that there are countless forms of correspondence between the two linguistic communications.
4. Discussion and decision The present analysis has mapped out a complex web of interlingual correspondences between Slovene and English footings and looks from the linguistic communication of the stock exchange. The CA focused on the signifier of the identified brace of NPs every bit good as on jobs of intending. detecting such interlingual troubles as divergent lexical ambiguity. false friends. conceptual and lexical spreads. This was expected. since linguistic communications are known to differ in an unsystematic and mostly unpredictable mode as to showing the same content.
We will now show our findings under the undermentioned three headers: a. Translation correspondence. Lexical ( terminological ) gaps The analysis has shown the prevailing type of interlingual rendition correspondence between the identified Slovene and English NPs to be partial correspondence ; it involves structural non-congruence. frequently coupled with complexnesss of significance. Example braces include: pooblascenec—proxy holder. trgovalna koda—ticker. posel s sveznjem—block trade. trzna kapitalizacija—market capitalisation. promet clanov—turnover by member houses. nominalne delnice—par value portions. etc.
There were besides cases of complete correspondence. where the English and Slovene NPs were both structurally and semantically congruous. but these were a minority. Examples include: promet—turnover. trgovalni dan—trading twenty-four hours. B. Bozinovski. The Language of the Stock Exchange … 163 Examples of nil correspondence between English and Slovene NPs have revealed lexical ( or. instead terminological ) spreads in the linguistic communications of the stock exchange. where certain constructs exist or have been lexicalized in one linguistic communication but non in the other.
English footings for which there are no ready-made Slovene equivalents include insider. blue-chip. OTC. and many others. Our outlooks sing the three types of interlingual rendition equality to be found between lexical points in two linguistic communications. as set down in the Introduction. have therefore been confirmed. English is the lingua franca of concern and finance. and this is besides reflected ( interlingually ) in the linguistic communication of the stock exchange.
New constructs and footings for them are born in the Anglophone West. while the remainder of the universe adopts the English nomenclature and largely merely localizes it to a certain extent. frequently neglecting to come up with language-specific tantamount footings. As a consequence. Slovene stock exchange nomenclature abounds in C transcripts of English footings ( blue-chip indeks. sistematicni internalizator. insajder ) . straight modelled upon their English opposite numbers. and descriptive looks ( izvedeni financni instrument. trgovanje na podlagi notranjih informacij. prvi trgovalni dan brez upravicenja do dividende ) .
Particularly slippery are virtually untranslatable English footings that have no lexical equivalent in Slovene at all ( mistrade. market shaper. OTC. hedge fund ) . Debatable as to their Slovene equivalents are besides the idiom-like pumping dumping. painting the tape. wash gross revenues. scalping. etc. When there are no ready-made interlingual rendition equivalents ( lexical. conceptual spread ) . there are at least three options—a ) to do up a new Slovene term. B ) to choose for a descriptive equivalent. or degree Celsius ) to seek to happen an approximative “functional” equivalent.
Descriptive looks ( posli. pri katerih je sprememba lastnistva financnih instrumentov zgolj navidezna for wash gross revenues ) can be tedious. Functional equivalents ( narocilo s skrito kolicino is a type of order really similar to iceberg order. but non indistinguishable to iceberg ) can be inaccurate. The 3rd option. to contrive a new term. prevarications outside the range of interlingual rendition work. since in LSP it is non customary for transcribers to make up one’s mind on preferable footings for constructs. These are for experts to hold on ( sometimes in cooperation with linguists ) .
Once they become used and catch on. the transcriber may acknowledge them as legitimate equivalents. based on adept advice. but non earlier. lest they become ghost words. i. e. footings that exist on paper. but non in existent usage. There are besides some Slovene footings with no mirror-image English equivalents. which is a general characteristic of any nomenclature. non merely the linguistic communication of the stock exchange. TUVL. BTS. and the similar are limited to footings for constructs alone to the Slovene stock exchange trading platform. We can therefore speak of conceptual spreads.
They are translated into English through explanatory equivalents. e. g. . market shaper TUVL section. B. Interference. Collocations. false friends and the similar It is a known fact that linguistic communication scholars ( transcribers as non-native talkers of an L2 included ) are inclined to pull analogies with their L1 when building lexical units in L2. When the two linguistic communications overlap in their formal. semantic or grammatical characteristics. this leads to positive transportation and right L2 lexical points ( footings and looks ) . Slovene footings such as mednarodni razpis. nalozba. dividenda. obveznica and 164.
Slovenski jezik – Slovene Linguistic Studies 7 ( 2009 ) their English interlingual renditions are parallel in all of the above respects and therefore elementary in translational and incompatible footings. If the formal. semantic or grammatical characteristics of L1 and L2. nevertheless. make non overlap. or if they do but merely partly ( when significances agree. but non signifiers. or the other manner around ) . so building L2 footings on the analogy with L1 1s leads to lexical mistakes and we speak of intervention or negative transportation from L1. This is a possibility with the majority of Slovene stock exchange footings and looks.
Take aplikacija. for case. A transcriber unfamiliar with the nomenclature of the field might be tempted to interpret it as application. which. to my cognition. has no specialised significance in this field. the right equivalent being the unpredictable cross trade. Or the much debated organizirani trg. which is non organized in English. but instead regulated market. Consider besides the enticement of word-for-word rendition of korak kotacije. borzna kotacija. Mali vlagatelj. prekinitvena avkcija and many others.
Negative transportation works in the opposite way every bit good. when it is known as backward intervention ; under the influence of L2. scholars can be frequently tempted to reconstruct their L1 lexical points to fit those in L2. Even if backward intervention be at work. looks such as fiscal markets. legal model. investors would non do any jobs. since they are structurally and semantically parallel to their Slovene equivalents. It gets slippery when the Slovene term for open-end fund is non odprti sklad. but instead vzajemni sklad. and particularly with footings such as quotation mark.
Quotation mark has the attractive verbal equivalent kotirati that does be and is widely used but with a different significance. the right rendering being narocilo za nakup in prodajo. The cross-linguistic floors are besides slippy with footings such as regulated market. which appears elementary at first sight ; in fact. nevertheless. regulirani trg is an look that does non be in the Slovene linguistic communication of the stock exchange. where the same construct has been lexicalized through another lexeme—organizirani trg.
Further. there are braces of NPs that look deceivingly similar. yet differ in of import inside informations. which we had anticipated in the Introduction to this article. For case. trade in portions is trgovati omega delnicami. assets under direction is sredstva 5 upravljanju. right on a security is pravica iz vrednostnega papirja. bond ( sg. ) index is indeks obveznic ( pl. ) . dobicek ( sg. ) sodium delnico is net incomes ( pl. ) per portion. and capital markets can either be kapitalski trg ( sg. ) or kapitalski trgi ( pl. ) .
Grammatical collocations are a notoriously hard interlingual country. doing jobs particularly in encoding. and so are the singular—plural differentiations. When interpreting slovenski kapitalski trg into English. most would choose for the lone sensible pick. viz. Slovene capital market. Yet the English prefer the plural look. therefore Slovene capital markets. Due to semantic tailoring. a lexical point may be endowed with a battalion of semantic shadings and accordingly receive different opposite numbers in the other linguistic communication.
Trg. for case. is non ever market in the linguistic communication of the stock exchange. Borzni and prosti trg are exchange and semi-official market. while for narocila na trgu we have orders sitting in the order book. Similarly. the adjectival organizirani can either be organized ( trading ) or regulated ( market ) in English. while vzdrzevalec likvidnosti can either be liquidity supplier or market shaper. depending on the context. B. Bozinovski. The Language of the Stock Exchange … 165
Conversely. the EN portion is non ever delez in Slovene ; note the brace share—delnica. official market share—delnica na borznem trgu. market share—trzni delez. portion capital—osnovni kapital. This confirms our outlooks worded in the Introduction on the possible disagreement between interlingual rendition equivalents of lexemes in isolation ( aplikacija—application. organiziran—organized ) and those of the same lexemes in a peculiar context ( aplikacija—cross trade. organizirani trg—regulated market ) .
It is one of the ends of incompatible lexicology to indicate out such controversial braces of collocations and therefore prolong the claim that interlingual rendition equality is mostly collocation-dependent. The analysis has besides singled out Slovene and English NPs that look similar ( hold a similar signifier ) . but differ. at least partially. in significance ( the alleged false friends ) . One of them normally belongs to the LSP of the stock exchange. while the other has LGP applications divorced from the stock exchange context: quotation mark ( n. ) —kotirati ( v. ) . institutional inve.