A. 1 ) What is meant by the term “distribution policy” ? How have dividend payout versus stock redemption changed over clip? Distribution Policy involves three issues. 1 ) What fraction of net incomes should be distributed? 2 ) Should the distribution be in the signifier of hard currency dividends or stock redemptions? 2 ) Should the houses maintain a steady. stable divided growing rate? The dividend payout versus stock redemption has changed dramatically during the past 30 old ages. First off the entire hard currency distributions as a per centum of net income have remained the same reasonably stable at around 26 % to 28 % . but the mix of dividends and redemptions has changed.
The mean dividend payout fell from 22. 3 % in 1974 to 13. 8 % in 1998. while the mean repurchase payouts as a per centum of net income rose from 3. 7 % to 13. 6 % . Since 1985. big companies have repurchased more portions than they have issued. Ever since 1998. more hard currency has been returned to stockholders in redemptions so as dividend payouts. Second. companies today are less likely to pay a dividend. In 1978. about 66. 5 % of NYSE. AMEX. and Nasdaq houses paid a dividend. In 1999. merely 20. 8 % paid a dividend.
A part of this decrease can be explained by the larger figure of IPO’s in the 1990’s. since immature houses seldom pay a dividend. Even though that doesn’t explain the whole narrative. as many mature houses now don’t pay dividends. Third is that comparatively little figure of older. more constituted. and more profitable houses histories for most of the hard currency distributed as dividends and eventually there is a considerable fluctuation in distribution policies. as some companies pay a high per centum of their income as dividends and some wage none.
2 ) The footings “irrelevance. ” and “dividend penchant. or bird-in-the-hand. ” and “tax effects” have been used to depict three major theories sing the manner dividend payout affect a firm’s value. Explain what these footings mean. and briefly describe each theory.
Irrelevance theory was created by two work forces which names are Merton Miller and Franco Modigliani. They argued that the firm’s value is determined by its basic gaining power and its concern hazard. Basically the houses depends on the income produced by its assets non on how income is split between dividend and maintained net incomes. To understand this theory better any stockholder can build its ain dividend policy. An illustration if a house does non pay dividends and a stockholder that want to a 5 % dividend can make it by selling 5 % of his stock. So if investors could purchase and sell their ain portions and plus make their ain dividend policy without incurring cost so it would genuinely be irrelevant.
Dividend Preference Theory that was created by Myron Gordon and John Linter argue that a stocks hazard diminutions as dividends addition. in other words a bird in the manus is worth more than a bird in the shrub significance that’s its better receive hard currency in your custodies from dividend than instead allowing it travel to the market. That’s why stockholders wand dividends and are willing to accept a lower needed return on equity.
The Tax Effect Theory argues that are two grounds why stock monetary value appreciates still is taxed more favourably than dividend income. First. due to clip value effects. a dollar of revenue enhancements paid in the hereafter has a lower effectual cost than a dollar paid today. So if dividend and additions are taxed the same. capital additions are ne’er taxed sooner than dividends. Second. if a stock is held by person until he or she dies. no capital additions revenue enhancement is due at all. the donees who receive the stock can utilize the stock’s value on the decease twenty-four hours as their cost footing and therefore wholly escape the capital additions revenue enhancement.
3 ) What do the three theories indicate sing the actions direction should take with regard to dividend payouts? What the three theories indicate sing the actions direction should take with regard to dividend payouts is the irrelevant theory thinks that it shouldn’t be taking into action because it should be by the income produced by its assets non on how income is split between dividend and maintained net incomes. Dividends Preference theory fundamentally says it’s better to have the money from the dividend than allowing it travel the market and the Tax Effect theory says the dividends aren’t deserving every bit much as there are issued.
4 ) What consequences have empirical surveies of the dividend theories produced? How does all this affect what we can state directors about dividend payouts? Some of the consequences that empirical surveies of the dividend theories have produced are that all factors other than distribution degree should be held changeless. that is the sample companies should differ merely in their distribution degrees. Second each houses cost of equity should be measured with a high grade of truth. Unfortunately we can non happen a set of publically owned houses that differ merely in their distribution degrees nor can they obtain their cost of equity.
That’s why cipher has been able to place a relationship between the distribution degree and the cost of equity or house value. Although none of the empirical trial are perfect. recent grounds shows that houses with higher dividend payouts besides have a higher needed returns. This tends to back up the revenue enhancement consequence hypothesis. even though the size of the needed return is excessively high to be explained by revenue enhancements. All of this can impact what you tell a director because they make the determination to expropriate stockholders wealth and that’s because there is a high bound on the payouts.
B ) Discuss 1 ) The information content. or signaling. hypothesis It has been observed that an addition in the dividend is frequently accompanied by an addition in the monetary value of a stock. while a dividend cut by and large leads to a stock monetary value diminution. Another statement was brought to attending that which was that higher-then expected dividend addition is signal to investors that the firm’s direction prognosiss good hereafter gaining if the antonym happens which dividend lessening and or smaller-than-expected addition so the prediction hapless future net incomes. What they are fundamentally stating that if the monetary values change following the dividends actions indicated that there is of import information. or signaling. content in the dividend proclamation.
2 ) The clientele consequence With the patronages affect which is one of the different groups the receive dividend payout would wish to alter something things around like in the manner they would wish to acquire paid. A good illustration is that retired persons. pension financess. and university gift financess by and large prefer hard currency income so they might desire a high per centum on their net incomes. Some investors on their peak twelvemonth want to reinvest because they have less need for current investing income and would merely reinvest dividends received after first paying income revenue enhancements on those dividends.
3 ) Their consequence on distribution policy Their consequence on distribution policies can be a batch of things that could go on like how messages and informations can be shared and distributed throughout the assorted divisions and section of the company. With the signaling consequence how would the company pull off their money would they wish to have more of it in hard currency or reinvest it in more dividend and could impact how the company benefits.
With the patronages consequence it depends on what sort of investors are in the company. If they are immature or if there are in their older old ages of life if they are acquiring reasonably old they might non be caring about the company so much but about how they are traveling to be acquiring paid they tend to worry about they will be able to acquire hard currency fast if they need it instead than puting it and non being able to sell it subsequently on and every bit fast as they want.
C ) 1 ) Assume that SSC has $ 800. 000 capital budget planned for the approaching twelvemonth. You have determined its present capital construction ( 60 % equity and 40 % debt ) is optional. and its net income is forecasted at $ 600. 000. Use the residuary distribution theoretical account attack to find SSC’s entire dollar distribution. Assume for now that the distribution is in the signifier of a dividend. Then. explicate what would go on if net income were forecasted at $ 400. 000. At $ 800. 000.
The SSC’s entire dollar distribution will come out to be a sum of $ 120. 000. The manner I got this reply was by multiplying the 60 % of equity with the sum of capital budgeting which is $ 800. 000 and came out to be $ 480. 000 and so subtracted by the entire income which is $ 600. 000 and came out with $ 120. 000.
Now if I switch the net income from $ 600. 000 to $ 400. 000 the residuary distribution would be a deficit of $ 80. 000 that would intend that the company would hold to publish new common stock in order to keep its mark capital construction.
Now if the net income was raised to $ 800. 000 the residuary distribution would come out to be $ 320. 000 which would now be able to pay their dividends. 2 ) In general footings. how would a alteration in investing chances affect the payout ratio under the residuary distribution policy? The lone manner a alteration in investing chances would impact the payout ratio under the residuary distribution policy would be if the investings chances are difficult to happen so the company would hold excess money for their stockholders. In the residuary distribution policy when the investing chances goes up the dividend payouts goes down and it can besides be the opposite every bit good. when dividend payout goes up the investing opportunities goes down.
3 ) What are the advantages and disadvantages of the residuary policy? The primary advantage of the residuary policy is that under it the house makes maximal usage of lower cost retained net incomes. therefore minimising floatation costs and hence the cost of capital. Besides. whatever negative signals are associated with stock issues would be avoided.
However. if it were applied precisely the residuary theoretical account would ensue in dividend payments that fluctuated significantly from twelvemonth to twelvemonth as capital demands and internal hard currency flows fluctuated. Some of the things that could go on is that it would direct investors conflicting signals over clip sing the houses future chances at that place could besides be no specific patronage that would be attracted to the house. These affects would do higher needed return on equity and lower floatation cost.