What is Air Pollution?
* Air pollution can be defined as the presence of any harmful stuff in the air and the ambiance that can do harm to human existences and other life beings. * Air pollution could besides be in the signifier of perturbations to the normal composing of the air such that there is an unsought consequence on the environment or living things. * Under normal fortunes. the earth’s atmosphere consists of N ( ~78 % ) . O ( ~21 % ) . little sums of C dioxide ( ~0. 03 % ) and other gases like H2O vapour and some bantam atoms of liquid/solid affair like dust.
Natural Beginnings of Air Pollution
A. Volcanic Volcanic eruptions
* Carbon dioxide and S dioxide are the primary gases that are released during volcanic eruptions. * Other gases like H sulphide. H chloride. H fluoride. C monoxide. halocarbons and some metal chlorides are besides released into the ambiance. * Besides the volcanic gases. there is besides volcanic ash. Volcanic ash can travel 100s to 1000s of stat mis downwind from a vent.
B. Forest Fires
* All forest fires emit C monoxide. S dioxide. N dioxide. ozone. and particulate affair.
C. Wind Erosion
* Acts by picking up loose atoms of soil and dirt. largely where workss are excessively thin to keep the dirt together.
D. Radon Expulsion
* Nuclear elements like U are found inside the earth’s surface. and when these elements decompose they release a baronial gas known as Radon into the ambiance.
E. Methane Expulsion
* Farm animate beings like cowss release methane into the ambiance during the terminal phases of their digestive rhythms. * Methane is besides produced by the natural decomposition of workss.
Factors Affecting Air Quality such as
Weather. Wind and Geography
* Turbulence mixes pollutants into the environing air.
* Wind velocity besides contributes to how rapidly pollutants are carried off from their original beginning.
– Temperature inversions occur when a stable bed of warm air sheathings cooler air. change by reversaling the normal temperature diminution with increasing tallness. and forestalling convection currents from scattering pollutants.
• Dust Domes and Heat Islands
– Sparse flora and big sums of concrete and glass create warm. stable air multitudes. heat islands. over big metropoliss. Concentrates pollutants in a “dust dome” .
* An urban heat island ( UHI ) is a metropolitan country that is significantly warmer than its environing rural countries due to human activities.
* The dome-shaped formation of stagnant and polluted air above a metropolis is known as a dust dome.
Effects OF AIR POLLUTION
* A assortment of pollutants have known or suspected harmful effects on human wellness and the environment.
* Exposure to air pollution is associated with legion effects on human wellness. It can do both acute ( short-run ) and chronic ( long term ) wellness effects.
* Acute effects- are normally immediate and frequently reversible when exposure to the pollutant terminals. – & gt ; These include oculus annoyance. concerns. and sickness.
* Chronic effects- are normally non immediate and tend non to be reversible when exposure to the pollutant terminals. These include reduced lung capacity and lung malignant neoplastic disease ensuing from long term exposure to toxic air pollutants.
Most common pollutants:
1. Carbon Monoxide
Description: colorless gas
Beginnings: motor vehicle fumes. indoor beginnings include kerosine or wood combustion ranges.
Health Effectss: concerns. reduced mental watchfulness. bosom onslaught. cardiovascular diseases. decease.
Welfare Effectss: contribute to the formation of smog.
2. Sulfur Dioxide
Description: colorless gas that dissolves in H2O vapour to organize acid. and interact with other gases and atoms in the air.
Beginnings: crude oil refineries. industry of sulphuric acid. coal-burning power workss.
Health Effectss: oculus annoyance. wheezing. chest elation. shortness of breath. lung harm.
Welfare Effectss: contribute to the formation of acerb rain. works and H2O harm and aesthetic harm.
3. Nitrogen Dioxide
Description: reddish. brown. extremely reactive gas.
Beginnings: motor vehicles. electric utilities. and other industrial
Health Effectss: annoyance of the lung and respiratory symptoms ( e. g. . cough. chest hurting. trouble take a breathing )
Welfare Effectss: contribute to the formation of smog. acerb rain and planetary heating.
Description: gaseous pollutant when it is formed in the troposphere.
Beginnings: vehicle fumes and certain other exhausts. Formed from other air pollutants in the presence of sunshine.
Health Effectss: oculus and pharynx annoyance. coughing. respiratory piece of land jobs. asthma. lung harm
Welfare Effectss: works and ecosystem harm
5. Particulate Matter ( PM )
Description: really little atoms of carbon black. dust. or other affair.
Beginnings: Diesel engines. power workss. industries. windblown dust. wood ranges.
Health Effectss: oculus annoyance. asthma. bronchitis. lung harm. malignant neoplastic disease. cardiovascular effects.
Welfare Effectss: atmospheric deposition. aesthetic harm.
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
Wayss to command Air Pollution
* PARTICULATE REMOVAL- remove atoms physically by pin downing them in a porous mesh which allows air to go through through but holds back solids.
* Sulfur Removal- switch from soft coal with a high S content to low sulfur coal.
– alteration to another fuel ( natural gas ) .
* Nitrogen oxides- best method is to forestall creative activity.
* Electrostatic precipitator- a particulate aggregation device that removes atoms from a fluxing gas such as air utilizing the force of an induced electrostatic charge.
Clean Air Legislation
* Clean Air Act of America ( 1970 ) : It was the first jurisprudence for American air pollution control. It was rewritten in 1990.
* Cap and Trade plan ( 1995 ) : set maximal sums for pollutants ; businesses/industries confronting dearly-won killings can pay others with lower costs to cut down emanations on the former’s behalf. * This led to cut down sulfur dioxide degrees.
* Montreal Protocol ( 1987 ) * The Montreal Protocol was signed by 180 states and addressed ozone depletion. * It made the production & A ; usage of ozone-depleting compounds fall 95 % since the late 1980s * The Philippines had ratified the Montreal Protocol on July 7. 1991.
* Clean Air Act of the Philippines ( 1999 ) [ AKA RA 8749 ] * focuses more on pollution bar instead than pollution control. * It promotes self-regulation among the population.
* Art. 1: General Provisions * Sec. 14: sets up an Air Quality Fund that will fund the Act * Sec. 15: establishes a R & A ; D plan for air pollution decrease mechanisms and engineerings. * Art. 3: Pollution from Stationary Beginnings
* requires concerns to undergo conformity proving anterior to operation of constitutions
* Sec. 20: prohibitions incineration
* Art. 4: Pollution from Motor Vehicles
* Sec. 22: authorizes the LTO to necessitate vehicles to be submitted to compulsory smoke emanation trials prior to renewal of enrollment
* Art. 5: Pollution from Other Beginnings
* Sec. 24: prohibitions smoking in topographic points outside of one’s place. private workplace. or a designated smoke country
Current Conditionss and Future Prospects
* Excessive motor vehicle emanation continues to be the taking cause of Metro Manila’s air pollution. ( 80 % ) * It is besides the cause of 3 of every five lung malignant neoplastic disease instances. * The DOH notes a higher happening of noncontagious diseases ( NCDs ) – allergic reactions. acute respiratory infections. COPD. malignant neoplastic disease. and cardiovascular diseases – in the summer due to declining air pollution. * Of the top 10 taking instances of mortality in 2008. three were NCDs related to air pollution: chronic lower respiratory diseases. bosom disease. and pneumonia.
* Based on a 2006 World Bank survey in the Philippines. 52 million pesos were lost due to decreased work yearss of employees afflicted with NCDs related to air pollution. * Harmonizing to the same survey. 910 million pesos was spent on hospitalization and medical disbursals for the intervention of said diseases.
* Composite antismoke burping units ( ASBUs ) have been formed in all metropoliss and municipalities in Metro Manila. manned by representatives from the local authorities and the DENR. * Last March 1. 2012. the Philippines has launched the largest electric public conveyance fleet in South East Asia with its first commercial franchise of electric jeepneys – e-jeepneys.
( “Human-caused Air Pollution” )
( “Clean Air Legislation” and “Current Conditionss and Future Prospects” )
( “Effects of Air Pollution” and “Air Pollution Control” )
( “Natural Beginnings of Air Pollution” and “Factors Affecting Air Quality” )